Vaccination, also known as vaccination, is one of the most economical and effective ways to prevent and control infectious diseases. Vaccination can enhance the body’s immunity, improve its resistance, resist the invasion of germs, and thus play a role in protecting the human body. Therefore, everyone will be vaccinated in a planned way after birth, and infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, measles, polio, and other infectious diseases are controlled through planned immunization.
Why do vaccinations prevent infectious diseases? It turns out that the human immune system has a memory function. Vaccines are also a pathogen, but they are less toxic to humans. After the human body is vaccinated, the immune system will produce corresponding antibodies to fight against it, showing mild reactions, such as redness, swelling, and local ulceration. I believe everyone who has been vaccinated has experienced it. Some vaccines cause little or no adverse reaction, or the reaction is too mild to be noticed. When the immune response to the vaccine subsides, the specific antibodies corresponding to the vaccine remain in the body for a long time, while another type of immune cell with memory function records the information of the pathogen. When the human body encounters the same pathogen again, the corresponding antibodies that already exist are immediately mobilized to deal with the “enemy”, and the memory immune cells quickly call out the “files” of these “enemies” and immediately organize an effective defense response. As a result, these pathogens were controlled by the body’s defense system before the chaos, and the disease was naturally prevented.
Viruses are injected into eggs to produce vaccines
Vaccines can be divided into live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines according to different preparation processes. Live attenuated vaccines are prepared from avirulent or less virulent strains of virus strains, such as measles vaccines. After inoculation with this vaccine, the attenuated strain survives and reproduces in the body, thereby stimulating the body to produce an immune response, which is equivalent to a natural infection process. This vaccine has a good immune effect, and the dose of vaccination is relatively small. Inactivated vaccines use artificial methods such as heating to kill pathogens, but retain their original characteristics that can cause an immune response, and can also trigger an immune response after inoculation, thereby protecting the body. With the continuous development and progress of biochemistry, molecular biology, and bioengineering technology, new vaccines are emerging, such as polyvalent vaccines and DNA genetic vaccines. A multivalent vaccine is composed of several vaccines or vaccines mixed with toxoids in a certain proportion. One-shot can prevent multiple diseases at the same time, such as the DTP vaccine, leprosy, mumps vaccine, etc. The genetic vaccine is a vaccine prepared by DNA recombination technology. The DNA of the pathogen is directly integrated into a suitable vector and then inoculated into the human body, thereby stimulating the human immune response.
Getting vaccinated is often referred to as a shot because injections are a common method of vaccination. But in fact, there are other ways of vaccination, such as oral, aerosol inhalation, and scratching. Different vaccination routes are different. If the vaccination route is improper, it will not only affect the immune effect but also may lead to adverse reactions.
Vaccines and Serum
After vaccination, in addition to activating the body to produce corresponding antibodies to protect its health, sometimes it may also have adverse effects on the body or cause allergic reactions due to the quality of the vaccine itself, which we call the side effects of vaccination. Common vaccination side effects include general and abnormal reactions. General reactions are local or systemic allergic reactions caused by the characteristics of biological products, such as local swelling, fever, nausea, vomiting, etc. Abnormal reactions refer to reactions that require medical treatment and treatment after vaccination.
To prevent the occurrence of abnormal reactions, the World Health Organization (WHO) has made regulations on the immunization of certain groups of people or certain conditions: patients with abnormal immune function (such as immunodeficiency, malignant diseases) cannot use live vaccines; immunological preparations are being used The treated patients should not be vaccinated with live vaccines; children with obvious symptoms such as fever, need to postpone the vaccination; vaccines that require continuous multiple doses, if allergies or other serious adverse reactions occur during the previous vaccination, other vaccines should be canceled. Needle times of vaccination; allergic people should use the vaccine with caution.